Infusion of harmful foreign bodies and other toxic components in the air is generally considered as Air Pollution. Industry follows varied protocols that aid in combating air pollution. A few frequently practiced measures in conquering the pollution are discussed here:
- The most common and popular form of air pollution control is the activated carbon control method. In this type of control there is a use of a pollution filter carbon that helps to reduce the volume of pollutants escaping into the air. The filters absorb the pollutants thereby cleansing the air from the possible toxins.
- Bio-filtration control is another effective type of air pollution control that uses microorganisms in place of filters. Good bacteria and fungi are used to dissolve the pollutants. Industries in which this type of air pollution control is implemented are pharmaceutical companies, food and waste plants and wastewater management industry.
- Changing to less polluting fuel is another technique to reduce air pollution. Such fuels include low sulfur fuel needed by electric utilities however this type of fuel is much more expensive than the high sulfur fuel.
- Use of natural gas is also very effective option for air pollution control. Such type of fuel switching is based on meteorological conditions and air pollution forecasts.
- Use of oil that form low ash will also reduce particulate matter. Use of compressed natural gas, ethanol and propane along with oxygenated fuels by the automobiles has reduced the air pollutants significantly.
Other Control Methods
The most effective control method of air pollution is to avert the formation of pollutants. Proper methods of air pollution control will minimize the emission right from the source itself. In the industries this is achieved in the early stages by several approaches in process design and development.
Application of these methods does not affect the economy though it is difficult to apply. It does not affect the operation and at the same time it controls the pollutants from the source itself. Different ways in which this can be achieved are:
- Changing the raw materials
- Operational changes,
- Modification or replacement of old equipment and
- More effective operation of the equipment.
The Two Categories
The method of air pollution control is divided into two categories: control of gaseous emissions and control of particulate emissions. Particulate refers to the tiny particles of matter such as soot and smoke, dust and dirt that are usually released during industrial and other agricultural activities. Gaseous emissions on the other hand are the industrial products released in the air such as sulfur dioxide, oxides of nitrogen and carbon monoxide. Filters and bag houses are used to retain the particulate matter and the gases respectively.
Details of Source Correction Methods
The primary cause for air pollution is the different industries that are functional but do not stick to strict non-pollution strategies. However, due to the rise in concern about the environmental impact of these industries, most companies are investing a huge amount of money in air pollution control methods. These methods eliminate the formation of pollutants right at the source.
A dedicated team is required to carefully assess the cause of pollution and makes amendments in the early stages of design and development. They should suggest only those methods that have minimum potential for polluting the air. These source correction methods include:
- Substitution of raw materials
- Use of low sulfur fuel
- Use of refined Liquid Petroleum Gas or Liquefied Natural Gas and
- Process modification.
The Changes Made
The industries have made a lot of changes in their production process to ensure a better air pollution control. Washing of coal by pulverization method prior to its use reduces the emission of fly-ash in the air. Industries using coal for their production process are following this method for the betterment of the society. Other adjustments like fixation of boiler furnaces’ air intake, improvisation of old machines etc are few steps adorned by the industries to make the world pollution-free.